What are the Four Regions of the Johari Window Model?

What is known by the person about themselves và is also known by others -open area, open self, không tính tiền area, free self, or "the arena"What is unknown by the person about themselves, but which others know -blind area, blind self, or "blindspot"What the person knows about themselves that others do not know -hidden area, hidden self, avoided area, avoided self or "facade"What is unknown by the person about themselves and is also unknown by others -unknown area or unknown self

Like some other behavioural models (eg,Tuckman, Hersey/Blanchard), the Johari Window is based on a four-square grid -it is lượt thích a window with four "panes". Here"s how the Johari Window is normally shown, with its four regions:


This is the standard representation of the Johari Window model, showing each quadrant the same size.

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The four "panes" can be changed in form size to reflect the relevant proportions of each type of "knowledge" of/about a particular person in a given group or team situation.

In new groups or teams, the open không tính tiền space for any team thành viên is small (see below) because shared awareness is relatively small.As the team member becomes better established & known, so the kích cỡ of the team member"s open không tính phí area quadrant increases (see below)

Explanation of the Johari Window Model

Refer khổng lồ thefree detailed Johari Window mã sản phẩm diagramin the không tính phí resources section - print a copy and it will help you to lớn understand what follows.

Johari Window model Quadrant 1

"Open Self/Area" or "Free Area" or "Public Area", or "Arena"

Region 1 is also known as the "area of miễn phí activity". This is the information about the person—behaviour, attitude, feelings, emotion, knowledge, experience, skills, views, etc.—knownby the person ("the self") andknownby the group ("others").

The aim in any group should always be lớn develop the "open area" for every person because we are most productive and effective when we work in this area with others, and the group is at its most productive too. The open miễn phí area, or "the arena", can be seen as the space where good communications and cooperation occur, free from distractions, mistrust, confusion, conflict và misunderstanding.

Established team members logically tend to have larger mở cửa areas than new team members. New team members start with relatively small xuất hiện areas because relatively little knowledge about the new team thành viên is shared. The kích thước of the mở cửa area can be expanded horizontally into the blind space, by seeking và actively listening to feedback from other group members. This process is known as"feedback solicitation".Other group members can help a team member expand their xuất hiện area by offering feedback, sensitively of course. The size of the xuất hiện area can also be expanded vertically downwards into the hidden or avoided space by the person"s disclosure of information, feelings, etc. About him/herself to the group and group members.Group members can help a person expand their open area into the hidden area by asking the person about him/herself. Managers & team leaders can play an important role in facilitating feedback and disclosure among group members & indirectly giving feedback khổng lồ individuals about their own blind areas.Leaders also have a big responsibility to promote the sharing of knowledge throughout their organisation, as well as a culture of open, positive, sensitive and constructive communication. Top-performing groups, departments, companies và organizations always tend lớn have a culture of xuất hiện positive communication. Hence, encouraging the positive development of the"open area" or "open self"for everyone is a simple yet fundamental aspect of effective leadership.

Johari Window mã sản phẩm Quadrant 2

"Blind Self" or "Blind Area" or "Blindspot"

Region 2 is what isknownabout a person by others in the group, but isunknownby the person themselves.

By seeking or soliciting feedback from others, the aim should be to lớn rperfectslimusa.netce this area và thereby khổng lồ increase the xuất hiện areai.e, to increase self-awareness.This blind area is not an effective or productive space for individuals or groups. This blind area could also be referred to as ignorance about oneself, or issues about which one is deluded.A blind area could also include issues that others are deliberately withholding from a person. This relates to lớn the difficulty one experiences when being "kept in the dark".

Group members và managers can take some responsibility for helping an individual khổng lồ rperfectslimusa.netce their blind area—in turn increasing the mở cửa area—bygiving sensitive feedback & encouraging disclosure.

Managers should promote a climate of non-judgemental feedback, và group response lớn individual disclosure, which rperfectslimusa.netces fear and therefore encourages both processes lớn happen.The extent to lớn which an individual seeks feedback, & the issues on which feedback is sought, must always be at the individual"s own discretion.

Johari Window mã sản phẩm Quadrant 3

"Hidden Self" or "Hidden Area" or "Avoided Self" or "Facade"

Region 3 is what isknownto ourselves but kept hidden from, & thereforeunknown, to lớn others.

This hidden or avoided self represents anything that a person knows about themselves—information, feelings, etc.,—which is not revealed, or is kept hidden from others.The hidden area could also include sensitivities, fears, hidden agendas, manipulative intentions, secrets—anything that a person knows but does not reveal, for whatever reason.It is natural for very personal and private information và feelings lớn remain hidden. Indeed, certain information, feelings and experiences have no bearing on work, & so can and should remain hidden. However, a lot of hidden information is not very personal, it is work—or performance—related, và so is better positioned in the mở cửa area.

Relevant hidden information và feelings, etc, should be moved into the mở cửa area through the process of "disclosure".

The aim should be khổng lồ disclose và expose relevant information & feelings—hence the Johari Window terminology "self-disclosure" & "exposure process", thereby increasing the open area.By telling others how we feel và other information about ourselves, we rperfectslimusa.netce the hidden area & increase the open area. This enables better understanding, cooperation, trust, team-working effectiveness và productivity.Rperfectslimusa.netcing hidden areas also rperfectslimusa.netces the potential for confusion, misunderstanding, poor communication, etc, all of which distract from and undermine team effectiveness.

Organizational culture và working atmosphere have a major influence on group members" readiness to lớn disclose their hidden selves.Most people fear judgement or vulnerability & therefore hold back hidden information. If moved into the xuất hiện area—i.e. Made known by the group as well—this would enhance mutual understanding, thereby improving group awareness & enabling better individual performance and group effectiveness.

The extent lớn which an individual discloses personal feelings và information, the issues which are disclosed, and to whom they are disclosed must always be at the individual"s own discretion. As with feedback, some people are more resilient than others—care needs to be taken lớn avoid causing emotional upset. Also, as with soliciting feedback, the process of serious disclosure relates khổng lồ the process of "self-actualization" described in
Maslow"s Hierarchy of Needsdevelopment và motivation model.

Johari Window mã sản phẩm Quadrant 4

"Unknown Self" or "Area of Unknown Activity" or "Unknown Area"

Region 4 contains information, feelings, latent abilities, aptitudes, experiences etc., that areunknownto themselves andunknownto others in the group.These unknown issues take a variety of forms:

They can be feelings, behaviours, attitudes, capabilities, aptitudes, which can be quite close to lớn the surface, or a deeper aspects of a person"s personality, influencing their behaviour to lớn various degrees. Large unknown areas would typically be expected in younger people, and people who lack experience or self-belief.

There are several examples of unknown factors, the first of which is particularly common và relevant in organisations và teams. These include:

An ability that is under-estimated or un-tried through lack of opportunity, encouragement, confidence or training
A natural ability or aptitude that a person does not realise they possess
A fear or aversion that a person does not know they have
An unknown illness
Repressed or subconscious feelings
Conditioned behaviour or attitudes from childhood

The processes by which this information và knowledge can be uncovered are variedand can be prompted through self-discovery or observation by others. This can also occur in certain situations through collective or mutual discovery during intensive group work, such as outward bound courses. Counselling can also uncover unknown issues, but this would then be known lớn the person và by one other, rather than by a group.

Again, as with disclosure & soliciting feedback, the process of self-discovery is a sensitive one. The extent và depth to lớn which an individual is able to discover their unknown feelings must always be at the individual"s own discretion.Uncovering "hidden talents"—that is unknown aptitudes và skills, not to lớn be confused with developing the Johari "hidden area"—is another aspect of developing the unknown area và is not as sensitive as unknown feelings. Providing people with the opportunity to lớn try new things, with no great pressure to succeed, is often a useful way khổng lồ discover unknown abilities và thereby rperfectslimusa.netce the unknown area.

Managers & leaders can help by creating an environment that encourages self-discovery, và promoting the processes of self-discovery, constructive observation & feedback among team members. Creating a culture, climate & expectation for self-discovery helps people khổng lồ fulfil more of their potential & thereby lớn achieve more, và to contribute more lớn organisational performance.

Note:The unknown area could also include repressed or subconscious feelings rooted within formative events and traumatic past experiences, which can stay unknown for a lifetime. In a work or organisational context, the Johari Window should not be used khổng lồ address issues of a clinical nature. Useful references are Arthur Janov"s seminal book "The Primal Scream" (read about the book here) and
Transactional Analysis.

Examples of the Johari Window Model

Example 1 - Increasing xuất hiện Area Through Feedback Solicitation


This Johari Window mã sản phẩm diagram is an example of increasing the mở cửa area, by rperfectslimusa.netction of the blind area, which would normally be achieved through the process of asking for and then receiving feedback.

Feedback develops the mở cửa area by rperfectslimusa.netcing the blind area.The open area can also be developed through the process of disclosure, which rperfectslimusa.netces the hidden area.The unknown area can be rperfectslimusa.netced in different ways: by others" observation (which increases the blind area); by self-discovery (which increases the hidden area), or by mutual enlightenment - typically via group experiences và discussion - which increases the open area as the unknown area rperfectslimusa.netces.

A team that understands itself - that is, each person having a strong mutual understanding with the team - is far more effective than a team that does not understand each other- that is, whose members have large hidden, blind, and/or unknown areas.

Team members - and leaders - should always be striving to increase their open không tính tiền areas, và to rperfectslimusa.netce their blind, hidden and unknown areas.

Impact on effectiveness:A person represented by the Johari Window example below will not perform to their best potential, và the team will fail lớn make full use of the team"s potential and the person"s potential too. Efforts should generally be made by the person to lớn increase his/her open không lấy phí area, by disclosing information about his/her feelings, experience, views, motivation, etc, which will rperfectslimusa.netce the kích cỡ of the hidden area, and increase the open free area.

Seeking feedback about the blind area will rperfectslimusa.netce the blind area, và will increase the open free area. Discovery through sensitive communications, active listening and experience, will rperfectslimusa.netce the unknown area, transferring in part to the blind, hidden areas, depending on who knows what, or better still if known by the person và others, khổng lồ the open không tính tiền area.

Example 2 - New Team thành viên or member Within a New Team


This Johari Window model diagram is an example of a thành viên of a new team or a person who is new lớn an existing team.

The open không tính phí region is small because others know little about the new person.Similarly, the blind area is small because others know little about the new person.The hidden or avoided issues and feelings are a relatively large area.

In this particular example, the unknown area is the largest, which might be because the person is young or lacking in self-knowledge or belief.

Example 3 - Established Team Member


This Johari Window mã sản phẩm diagram is an example of an established thành viên of a team.

The open miễn phí region is large because others know a lot about the person that the person also knows.Through the processes of disclosure & receiving feedback the open area has expanded & at the same time rperfectslimusa.netced the sizes of the hidden, blind and unknown areas.

Other Related Theories

As already stated, the Johari Window relates also khổng lồ Transactional Analysis (notably understanding deeper aspects of the "unknown" area, region 4).

Further Ideas

The examples ofexercisesusing the Johari Window theory on this website might begin to mở cửa possibilities for you. The Johari Window obviously model provides useful background rationale và justification for most things that you might think to do with people relating to developing mutual và self-awareness, all of which liên kết strongly khổng lồ team effectiveness và harmony.

There are many ways khổng lồ use the Johari mã sản phẩm in learning và development - much as using any other theory such as
Maslow"s,Tuckman"s,Transactional Analysisor
NLP. It very much depends on what you want khổng lồ achieve.This being the case, it might help you lớn ask yourself first:

What vì you want lớn achieve in your training and development activities?
And what are your intended outputs and how will you measure that they have been achieved?

Then think about how the Johari Window theory & principles can be used to lớn assist this.

Researching academic papers (most typically published on university and learning institutions websites) written about theories such as Johari is a fertile method of exploring possibilities for concepts and models like Johari. This approach tends to improve your in-depth understanding, instead of simply using specific interpretations or applications "off-the-shelf", which in themselves might provide good ideas for a one-off session, but will not help you much with understanding how lớn use the thinking at a deeper level.

Also, explore the original work of Ingham & Luft, and review of same, relating khổng lồ the development & applications of the model.

Johari is a very elegant và potent model, & as with other powerful ideas,simply helping people khổng lồ understandis the most effective way lớn optimise the value lớn people. Explaining the meaning of the Johari Window theory lớn people, so they can really properly understand it in their own terms, then empowers people khổng lồ use the thinking in their own way, and to incorporate the underlying principles into their future thinking & behaviour.

Relevant reading:"Group Processes - An Introduction to Group Dynamics" by Joseph Luft, first published in 1963; and"Of Human Interaction: The Johari Model" by Joseph Luft, first published in 1969.

See Also

Working with files

Understanding how khổng lồ work with files và folders is an important part of using your computer. Once you understand how files and folder work, you'll use them all the time. In this lesson, we'll show you the absolute basics of working with files, including how to open files, move your files into folders, & delete files.

Watch the đoạn clip below to learn more about using files & folders in Windows.

What is a file?

There are many different types of files you can use. For example, Microsoft Word documents, digital photos, digital music, and digital videos are all types of files. You might even think of a tệp tin as a digital version of a real-world thing you can interact with on your computer. When you use different applications, you'll often be viewing, creating, or editing files.

Files are usually represented by an icon. In the image below, you can see a few different types of files below the Recycle Bin on the desktop.


What is a folder?

Windows uses folders khổng lồ help you organize files. You can put files inside a folder, just like you would put documents inside a real folder. In the image below, you can see some folders on the desktop.


File Explorer

You can view và organize files and folders using a built-in application known as File Explorer (called Windows Explorer in Windows 7 & earlier versions).

To xuất hiện File Explorer, click the File Explorer icon on the taskbar, or double-click any thư mục on your desktop. A new tệp tin Explorer window will appear. Now you're ready lớn start working with your files & folders.


From tệp tin Explorer, double-click a folder to mở cửa it. You can then see all of the files stored in that folder.


Notice that you can also see the location of a folder in the address bar near the vị trí cao nhất of the window.


To xuất hiện a file:

There are two main ways to mở cửa a file:

Find the tệp tin on your computer và double-click it. This will open the file in its default application. In our example, we'll open a Microsoft Word document (Cover Letter.docx), which will open in Microsoft Word.
Open the application, then use the application to xuất hiện the file. Once the application is open, you can go to the File thực đơn at the vị trí cao nhất of the window và select Open.

Moving & deleting files

As you begin using your computer, you will start to collect more và more files, which can make it more difficult to find the files you need. Fortunately, Windows allows you khổng lồ move files to lớn different folders and delete files you no longer use.

To move a file:

It's easy khổng lồ move a file from one location to lớn another. For example, you might have a tệp tin on the desktop that you want to move lớn your Documents folder.

Click and drag the file to the desired location.
Release the mouse. The file will appear in the new location. In this example, we have opened the folder to see the file in its new location.

You can use this same technique to move an entire folder. Lưu ý that moving a thư mục will also move all of the files within that folder.

To create a new folder:Within tệp tin Explorer, locate and select the New folder button. You can also right-click where you want the thư mục to appear, then select New > Folder.
The new thư mục will appear. Type the desired name for the folder and press Enter. In our example, we'll hotline it School Documents.
The new folder will be created. You can now move files into this folder.To rename a file or folder:

You can change the name of any file or folder. A chất lượng name will make it easier to remember what type of information is saved in the tệp tin or folder.

Click the file or folder, wait about one second, and click again. An editable text field will appear.Type the desired name on your keyboard và press Enter. The name will be changed.
To delete a file or folder:

If you no longer need to use a file, you can delete it. When you delete a file, it is moved khổng lồ the Recycle Bin. If you change your mind, you can move the file from the Recycle Bin back to lớn its original location. If you're sure you want khổng lồ permanently delete the file, you will need to lớn empty the Recycle Bin.

Click và drag the file to the Recycle Bin icon on the desktop. You can also click the tệp tin to select it và press the Delete key on your keyboard.
To permanently delete the file, right-click the Recycle Bin icon & select Empty Recycle Bin. All files in the Recycle Bin will be permanently deleted.

Note that deleting a folder will also delete all of the files within that folder.

Selecting multiple files

Now that you know the basics, here are a few tips to lớn help you move your files even faster.

Selecting more than one file

There are a few ways to lớn select more than one file at a time:

If you're viewing your files as icons, you can click và drag the mouse lớn draw a box around the files you want lớn select. When you're done, release the mouse; the files will be selected. You can now move, copy, or delete all of these files at the same time.
To select specific files from a folder, press và hold the Control key on your keyboard, then click the files you want khổng lồ select.
To select a group of files from a folder, click the first file, press & hold the Shift key on your keyboard, then click the last file. All of the files between the first & last ones will be selected.
Selecting all files

If you want to lớn select all files in a folder at the same time, mở cửa the thư mục in file Explorer và press Ctrl+A (press và hold the Control key on your keyboard, then press A). All of the files in the thư mục will be selected.

Ctrl+A is an example of a keyboard shortcut. We'll talk more about these in our lesson on Keyboard Shortcuts in Windows.

If working with files & folders feels a little tricky right now, don't worry! like anything else, working with files & folders is largely a matter of practice. You'll start lớn feel more comfortable as you continue using your computer. In the next lesson, we'll talk about another important concept: how lớn find files on your computer that you can't easily locate.


If you have a file or folder you use frequently, you can save time by creating a shortcut on the desktop. Instead of navigating to the file or thư mục each time you want to use it, you can simply double-click the shortcut to mở cửa it. A shortcut will have a small arrow in the lower-left corner of the icon.

Note that creating a shortcut does not create a duplicate copy of the folder; it's simply a way khổng lồ access the folder more quickly. If you delete a shortcut, it will not delete the actual thư mục or the files it contains. Also chú ý that copying a shortcut onto a flash drive will not work; if you want to bring a tệp tin with you, you'll need to lớn navigate lớn the actual location of the file and copy it khổng lồ the flash drive.

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To create a shortcut:Locate và right-click the desired folder, then select Send to lớn Desktop (create shortcut).

A shortcut khổng lồ the folder will appear on the desktop. Notice the arrow in the lower-left corner of the icon. You can now double-click the shortcut to xuất hiện the thư mục at any time.

You can also hold the Alt key on your keyboard, then click & drag the thư mục to the desktop lớn create a shortcut.